64 Rippetoe Lane
Swoope, Virginia 24479
Phone (540) 337-6501



Consultant, Police Use of Force and Related Topics

  • Consulted in thousands of use of force incidents and other police practices cases, including, but not limited to: Programs for Fox News (Radio and Television), BBC in London, Scotland, and Ireland, NPR, Canadian Television, and Dateline NBC; The Ruby Ridge Idaho, Incident; The New York City Amadou Diallo Case; And with the U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division in numerous cases including the Hurricane Katrina police shootings in New Orleans and the Bundy Ranch/Federal Bureau of Land Management Incident in Nevada.

Consultant/Expert Witness, Commanding Officer, Firearms Training Unit, & Over Twenty-five Years of Other Critical and/or Supervisory Positions in the Baltimore Police Department (Retired)

  • Evaluated and Analyzed over 1000 police shootings and hundreds of non-lethal force incidents
  • Hundreds of hours of experience in critical incident resolution
  • Developed standards and guidelines for critical incident management

Use of Force, Officer Survival, & Firearms Instructor

  • Over 5000 hours teaching experience
  • Instructed at various universities and colleges
  • Trained several thousand police officers and over 600 attorneys in police use of force
  • Guest lecturer for F.B.I. and other federal agencies
  • Evaluated use of force and firearms training programs for numerous police agencies

Court Qualified Expert

  • Police and Civilian Use of Force
  • Incident Reconstruction
  • Ballistics and Wound Ballistics
  • Firearms and Firearms Training
  • Defensive Skills
  • Pepper Spray and Chemical Agents
  • Police Procedures and Policies
  • Stressors in a Conflicts Involving Firearms
  • Critical Incident Management
  • Hunter Safety


  • Numerous lesson plans, memoranda, and directives in various use of force and officer survival subject matter
  • The rough draft of the Maryland State regulations governing police firearms training
  • The Baltimore Police Department General Order governing the resolution of sniper, hostage, and barricade situations
  • The training manual, team selection criteria, and operational procedures for the Baltimore Police Department Special Weapons and Tactics Teams
  • The Johns Hopkins Hospital Security Use of Force program
  • The Rouse Company Use of Force Training Policy and Training Program
  • The protocol for the administration of the Police Foundation's RAMS program
  • Articles on civil liability and officer liability


  • Harvard Association in Police Science: 2019 - Ballistic Reconstruction (Presenter).
    2018 - Cold Case Homicide Investigations. Investigating Homicides with No Body.
    Investigating Police Involved Shootings April & October (Presenter); 2017 -
    Investigating Police Involved Shootings (Presenter); 2016 - Officer Involved Shooting
    Team Concept (Presenter); 2015 - Police Use of Force in Close Confrontational
    Encounters, Excited Delirium (Presenter); 2014 - Advanced Training in Forensics,
    DNA, GSR; 2013 - Advanced Training in Forensics, Crime Scene Investigation; 2007
    - Advanced Training in Police Involved Shootings; 2000 - Basic Seminar in Homicide
  • Baltimore County Police Department: 2018 - Investigating Police Involved Shootings
    and Serious Use of Force Incidents (Presenter)
  • Baltimore Police Department TASER User Training - July 2009
  • Lorman Police Liability Seminar (Faculty) - August 2006 & 2002
  • Maryland Police Training Commission Internal Investigation School - March1996
  • Baltimore County Police Involved Shooting Administrative Investigators Course - April 1995
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation Defensive Skills Training - February 1995
  • Koga Baton Training - February 1995
  • Glock Armorers School - October 1992
  • Use of Force Seminar, Maryland Law Enforcement Association - November 1991
  • Glock Firearms Instructor Training - July 1990
  • Northwestern University Traffic Institute Deadly Force and the Police Officer Independent Study Program - May 1989
  • Smith and Wesson Firearms Instructor School - October 1988
  • Maryland Police Training Commission Instructor Training Program - June 1986
  • Maryland Police Training Commission Firearms Instructor Training Program - May 1986
  • Baltimore Police Department Supervisory Training Program - October 1977
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation SWAT Training Program - February 1976
  • U.S. Secret Service Protective Operations Training Program - January 1976
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation Hostage Negotiation Training Program - January 1976
  • U.S. Army Counter Sniper Training Program - July 1975
  • Baltimore Police Department Supervisory Training Program - March 1975
  • Baltimore Police In-Service Training - 1971 through 1995
  • Baltimore Police Academy - October 1970 to January 1971
  • Other courses and seminars


  • B.S., Criminal Justice (Magna Cum Laude), University of Baltimore


  • Awarded Special Commendation (Silver Star) for bravery and various other commendations


  • Past state certification as an expert and instructor with:  semi-automatic pistols; revolvers; shotguns; automatic weapons; bolt action and semi-automatic rifles; chemical agent delivery systems
  • Past state certification as an instructor in:  Use of Force, Officer Survival Techniques, Ballistics, Firearms, Riot and Crowd Control, and Chemical Agents
  • Past National Rifle Association certification as a Distinguished Pistol Expert and Police Firearms Trainer
  • Past Smith and Wesson Firearms Training Academy as a firearms instructor
  • Past certification as Glock Armorer and Firearms Instructor
  • President and Member of the Board of Directors, Harvard Associates in Police Science

Use of Force | Firearms | Internal Investigation | Police Tactics |
Departmental Organization and Structure |Domestic Violence | Narcotics Enforcement | More About Key Associates | Contact Us

Key Associates
64 Rippetoe Lane
Swoope, Virginia 24479
Phone (540) 337-6501

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