1628 Zinks Mill School Road
Vesuvius, VA ..24483
Phone (540) 377-9966


Consultant, Police Use of Force and Related Topics

  • Consulted in thousands of use of force incidents and other police practices cases, including programs for Fox News, NPR, and Dateline NBC, the Ruby Ridge Incident, the Amadou Diallo Case, and with the U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division in numerous cases including the Hurricane Katrina police shootings in New Orleans.

Consultant/Expert Witness, Commanding Officer, Firearms Training Unit, & Over Twenty-five Years of Other Critical and/or Supervisory Positions in the Baltimore Police Department (Retired)

  • Evaluated and Analyzed over 1000 police shootings and hundreds of non-lethal force incidents
  • Hundreds of hours of experience in critical incident resolution
  • Developed standards and guidelines for critical incident management

Use of Force, Officer Survival, & Firearms Instructor

  • Over 5000 hours teaching experience
  • Instructed at various universities and colleges
  • Trained several thousand police officers and over 600 attorneys in police use of force
  • Guest lecturer for F.B.I. and other federal agencies
  • Evaluated use of force and firearms training programs for numerous police agencies

Court Qualified Expert

  • Police and Civilian Use of Force
  • Incident Reconstruction
  • Ballistics and Wound Ballistics
  • Firearms and Firearms Training
  • Defensive Skills
  • Pepper Spray and Chemical Agents
  • Police Procedures and Policies
  • Stressors in a Conflicts Involving Firearms
  • Critical Incident Management
  • Hunter Safety


  • Numerous lesson plans, memoranda, and directives in various use of force and officer survival subject matter
  • The rough draft of the Maryland State regulations governing police firearms training
  • The Baltimore Police Department General Order governing the resolution of sniper, hostage, and barricade situations
  • The training manual, team selection criteria, and operational procedures for the Baltimore Police Department Special Weapons and Tactics Teams
  • The Johns Hopkins Hospital Security Use of Force program
  • The protocol for the administration of the Police Foundation's RAMS program
  • Articles on civil liability and officer liability


  • Harvard Association in Police Science: Advanced Training in Forensics 2013; Advanced Training in Police Involved Shootings 2007; Basic Seminar in Homicide Investigation May 2000.
  • Baltimore Police Department TASER User Training - July 2009
  • Lorman Police Liability Seminar (Faculty) - August 2006 & 2002
  • Maryland Police Training Commission Internal Investigation School - March1996
  • Baltimore County Police Involved Shooting Administrative Investigators Course - April 1995
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation Defensive Skills Training - February 1995
  • Koga Baton Training - February 1995
  • Glock Armorers School - October 1992
  • Use of Force Seminar, Maryland Law Enforcement Association - November 1991
  • Glock Firearms Instructor Training - July 1990
  • Northwestern University Traffic Institute Deadly Force and the Police Officer Independent Study Program - May 1989
  • Smith and Wesson Firearms Instructor School - October 1988
  • Maryland Police Training Commission Instructor Training Program - June 1986
  • Maryland Police Training Commission Firearms Instructor Training Program - May 1986
  • Baltimore Police Department Supervisory Training Program - October 1977
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation SWAT Training Program - February 1976
  • U.S. Secret Service Protective Operations Training Program - January 1976
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation Hostage Negotiation Training Program - January 1976
  • U.S. Army Counter Sniper Training Program - July 1975
  • Baltimore Police Department Supervisory Training Program - March 1975
  • Baltimore Police In-Service Training - 1971 through 1995
  • Baltimore Police Academy - October 1970 to January 1971
  • Other courses and seminars


  • B.S., Criminal Justice (Magna Cum Laude), University of Baltimore


  • Awarded Special Commendation (Silver Star) for bravery and various other commendations


  • Past state certification as an expert and instructor with:  semi-automatic pistols; revolvers; shotguns; automatic weapons; bolt action and semi-automatic rifles; chemical agent delivery systems
  • Past state certification as an instructor in:  Use of Force, Officer Survival Techniques, Ballistics, Firearms, Riot and Crowd Control, and Chemical Agents
  • Past National Rifle Association certification as a Distinguished Pistol Expert and Police Firearms Trainer
  • Past Smith and Wesson Firearms Training Academy as a firearms instructor
  • Past certification as Glock Armorer and Firearms Instructor
  • Member, Board of Directors, Harvard Associates in Police Science

Use of Force | Firearms | Internal Investigation | Police Tactics |
Departmental Organization and Structure |Domestic Violence | Narcotics Enforcement | More About Key Associates | Contact Us

Key Associates
1628 Zinks Mill School Road
Vesuvius, VA 24483

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